Process division is the starting department in the project basic design phase.
Process engineering involves translating the needs of the customer into (typically) production facilities that convert "raw materials" into value-added components that are transported to the next stage of the supply chain, typically "packaging engineering".
First of all, all required information is extracted from the technical annexes of the contract and result of pilot plant tests. After determining main parameters such as Plant Location, Site conditions (Temperature, Climatic Conditions, Rainfall, Snowfall, Humidity, Wind Condition and Geological Condition), Water Specification, Power, Plant working hours, Feed and Product
"General, Process and Plant Design" is prepared. Design work of process engineering begins with "Block diagram" which specify main parameters such as Main Systems, Feed Material Specification, Product Material Specification based on laboratory/pilot test results. Specification, operation and design capacity of plant, the first document which is called Next stage is preparation the Process flow diagram (PFD) Typically complex diagrams of major unit operations as well as flow lines They usually include a material balance, and sometimes an energy balance, showing typical or design flowrates, stream compositions, and stream and equipment pressures and temperatures. which determines material flow streams, storage equipment (such as bin, tanks and sumps), main equipment (such as crushing systems, grindings, separations, dewatering systems, pumping, etc.) flow rates are specified, as well as material handling equipment such as slurry pumps and conveyors and their contents, material properties such as density, particle size distribution, flow rates defined in this stage.
The process flow diagram is used to develop a Piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID) Diagrams showing each and every pipeline with piping class and pipe size. They also show valving along with instrument locations and process control schemes. which includes piping and instruments information to address the desired flow rates, process controls (such as tank level indications, material flow meters, weighing devices, motor speed controls, temperature and pressure indicators/ controllers, etc.). The P&ID is used as a basis of design for developing the "system operation guide" or "functional design specification" which outlines the operation of the process.
Specifications: Written design requirements of all major equipment items.
Key Functions of the Process Division
- Design the process in normal & special condition and preparation of Process Flow diagram,
- Calculate Mass & Water for each stream or consumer,
- Calculation of bins, sumps & tanks,
- Cooperation in preparing P&ID (required control items & parameters,
- Cooperation in preparation of Electrical load list (for consumers of continuous, stand by, intermittent, Emergency power, VFD, …),
- Cooperation in preparation of Instrument data sheets,
- main equipment selection,
- laboratory equipment selection,
- Cooperation in preparation of " Main Equipment List "
- Preparation of Process control philosophy,
- Supervisory during commissioning of plant and performance guarantee tests,
- Providing process information for preparation of inquiry of main equipment,
- Technical evaluation of proposals regarding supply of equipment,
- Internal Design Review of technical documents received from other engineering disciplines,
- Training of end-users’ personnel ,
Regarding nature of process activities Process Division has close relationship with other disciplines such as:
- Business Development Division, (providing required information in terms of participating in tenders)
- Local Procurement Division,
- Foreign Procurement Division,
- Engineering Divisions (Mechanical, Piping, Material Handling, Electrical, Instrument & Control and Project Control).
Document Types which prepare by process division are General Process and Plant design Criteria, Process Block diagram, Process Flow Diagram, Process Description and Commissioning and Operation Procedure.
PFD for a Coal Washing Plant
PFD for a Iron Ore Beneficiation Plant